Lobo, Carla Azevedo

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Lobo

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Carla Azevedo

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Carla Azevedo Lobo

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Carla Azevedo Lobo é doutorada em Gestão pela Universidade Portucalense. É Professora Auxiliar da Universidade Portucalense e leciona em cursos de Licenciatura, Mestrado e Doutoramento, na área das Ciências Empresariais. É também Coordenadora do Curso de Licenciatura em Gestão, desde 2010. É investigadora do REMIT (Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies). Foi a Investigadora Responsável do Projeto de Investigação ("IEcPBI”) na área dos Negócios Internacionais, financiado pelo COMPETE 2020, FEDER e FCT, entre 2018 - 2022. Afiliação: Investigadora do REMIT - Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies (departamento: DEG)

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REMIT – Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies
Centro de investigação que que tem como objetivo principal produzir e disseminar conhecimento teórico e aplicado que possibilite uma maior compreensão das dinâmicas e tendências económicas, empresariais, territoriais e tecnológicas do mundo contemporâneo e dos seus efeitos socioeconómicos. O REMIT adota uma perspetiva multidisciplinar que integra vários domínios científicos: Economia e Gestão; Ciências e Tecnologia; Turismo, Património e Cultura. Founded in 2017, REMIT – Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies is a research unit of Portucalense University. Based on a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective it aims at responding to social challenges through a holistic approach involving a wide range of scientific fields such as Economics, Management, Science, Technology, Tourism, Heritage and Culture. Grounded on the production of advanced scientific knowledge, REMIT has a special focus on its application to the resolution of real issues and challenges, having as strategic orientations: - the understanding of local, national and international environment; - the development of activities oriented to professional practice, namely in the business world.

Resultados da pesquisa

A mostrar 1 - 10 de 16
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Restrito
    Migration and export performance: The role of the diaspora remittances
    2024-03-26 - Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    Migration and international trade represent two fundamental and interconnected aspects of globalization. This paper studies the impact of migration on bilateral trade, using data for remittances as a proxy for migrants in an augmented panel data gravity model framework. Using data for Portuguese bilateral trade with 187 countries for the period 2008-2017, and controlling for other determinants of trade through a standard gravity model, we find that there is a significant impact of remittances on bilateral trade both in terms of exports and imports, particularly regarding some specific types of goods. The evidence of a significant relation between migration and trade has important implications, since it can provide policymakers an alternative option to promote trade and internationalization beyond conventional trade policy.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Inducing factors that can affect the success of internationalization: Comparative study for Portuguese firms
    2019 - Maldonado, Isabel; Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    The challenges that companies face in their internationalization strategy are naturally demanding. If we think that this strategy is no longer exclusive to large companies, we can easily understand all the research that has been carried out on this subject and more specifically on the approach to SMEs. Even so, little has been discussed about the relationship that can be established between the different strategic approaches to internationalization and the factors that entrepreneurs most value in this entrepreneurial process. Based on an exhaustive literature review, in addition to determining the driving factors of the internationalization strategy that Portuguese entrepreneurs most value, this research aims to assess, through a comparative study between the entrepreneurs' perspectives in 2014 and 2019, the possible oscillations in the international strategies of Portuguese entrepreneurs during the period of economic crisis (2014) and a post-crisis period (2019). To achieve these objectives, we used data from a questionnaire sent to "exporting companies and/or companies interested in exporting" from the AICEP - Portugal Global Database, in 2014 and later in 2019.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Do ISO certifications enhance internationalization? The case of portuguese industrial SMEs
    2022-01-25 - Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Pacheco, Luís Miguel
    In the last decades, the academic literature has devoted considerable attention to the determinants of export performance. In result of those research efforts in identifying and examining the influence of such determinants, the literature presents a wide set of variables associated with higher levels of exports. This paper provides a contribution to that literature by trying to evidence the impact of firm certification—namely, in terms of the firm’s quality, environmental, and health and safety management systems—on export performance. The paper analyses an unbalanced sample of 1684 Portuguese industrial SMEs for the period 2010 to 2020, uses other determinants of internationalization as control variables, and explores the possibility of moderating effects on the certification–internationalization relationship. Two alternative econometric methods are employed: a random-effects model and a Tobit model. The results evidence the importance for firms, especially in the low or medium–low technology sectors, to have certain ISO certifications in order to further develop their export activities and increase their foreign acceptance, particularly in the European Union markets. Further, certification seems to reinforce the positive relation between firm size and internationalization.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    International diversification of SMEs: The role of foreign capital
    2019-10 - Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between the firms’ ownership and control structure, in particular the presence of foreign capital, and their internationalization levels. The internationalization of Portuguese SMEs depends on a multitude of factors, being the impact of foreign investment inflows directed to industrial SMEs a usually forgotten factor. This paper fills that gap using a balanced panel data of 5,722 firms for an eight year period beginning in 2010, researching if the presence of foreign capital influences the level and scope of internationalization, and controlling for the effects of variables such as profitability, age, size, indebtedness and sector of activity. The country of origin of the foreign capital is considered and possible non-linear effects are also tested. The results evidence that the presence in SMEs of foreign shareholders positively influences internationalization. Also, there seems to exist a non-linear relation between the development level of the country of origin of the share capital and internationalization, with the results indicating that firms with capital originated from more advanced countries attain a higher degree of internationalization.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Drivers of and barriers to the SME internationalisation process in a small open economy
    2020-11 - Brochado, Ana; Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Pacheco, Luís Miguel
    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have actively increased their participation in international markets. This research's primary objective was to identify, based on 11 case studies, the main barriers to and drivers of the SME internationalisation process in a small open economy. Content analysis of in-depth interviews used Leximancer software to identify 7 themes that describe both internal and external barriers and 12 themes that characterise drivers, which were classified into five groups: SME human capital, technology, institutional support, networks and other drivers.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Restrito
    Internationalize? Why? - Motivations of Portuguese firms
    2020-04 - Durão, Natércia; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla; Maldonado, Isabel; Pacheco, Luís Miguel
    Business internationalization has become in recent decades, more than a requirement, a strategy of many firms, regardless their size or age. Besides trying to reach new markets and new clients, internationalization has turned into a strategy of the organization itself, far beyond its need to survive. Several authors highlight the company's growth strategies, in which facing the difficulty of growing in the national market given the increased competition, the public policies restricting business expansion, among others, the company chooses to go international and take advantage of the opportunities created in a new market. The Dunning model (1992) was based on four motivational factors: resource-seeking, market-seeking, efficiency-seeking and strategic asset-seeking. Although this typology was an important reference to explain the motivations for international expansion of multinationals from developed countries, empirical evidence has shown that the motivations of smaller companies can be quite different. Accordingly, some studies make a more extensive and complementary proposal. They suggest that there are two types of factors: the reactive and the mixed factos, that can influence the strategic management of internationalization. Reactive motivations include internationalization by drag and the imperatives of the business itself. At mixed motivations, authors consider, for example, geographical proximity and cultural affinities, the advantage of economies of scale, the use of the country's image and also government support. The reasons underlying the decision of firms' internationalization may therefore have different segmentations, and may well differ when it comes to SMEs or large firms. This work aims to identify the determinants that motivated the internationalization decision of portuguese firms, namely to understand whether they adopt a reactive or more proactive approach, that we can naturally associate with a strategy of reaction to, for instance, the retraction of internal demand, or a more active strategy that is part of the new mission or vision of the company. It will also be tried to ascertain whether there are any diferences in the most frequent motivations between the smallest and the largest companies. To achieve this goal we will use Quantitative Analysis Methodologies, through Descriptive and Inferential Analysis. Data were collected from 238 valid responses questionnaire and were treated by IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 software. Our preliminar results show that the most important determinants for internationalization are in line with those defined by the Dunning model, despite the size or age of the firm.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    The impact of gender on financial performance: evidence for portuguese SMEs
    2021-07 - Maldonado, Isabel; Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    The relationship between gender and profitability in the context of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is a less studied topic in the broader context of performance determinants. Thus, the objective of this paper is to examine whether women’s leadership of the firms’ board of directors and senior management teams enhances financial performance. Contributing to fill this research gap and based on the agency and stakeholder theories, it is used a balanced panel data of 4.806 Portuguese SMEs for the period from 2010 to 2019. The results from the random-effects model evidence the absence of a broad significant relationship, albeit with some slight evidence of a negative relation, moderated by firm age and present in some specific sectors of activity. Given the SMEs importance in the majority of countries, the results and implications of this paper can be generalized to other economies.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    The presence of foreign capital and the internationalization of Portuguese Industrial SMEs
    2022-02-02 - Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Maldonado, Isabel
    The objective of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between the firms’ ownership and control structure, in particular the presence of foreign capital, and their internationalization levels, measured in terms of intensity and diversification. The international performance of Portuguese SMEs, which is crucial for the domestic economy’s growth, depends on a multitude of factors, with the existence of foreign investment inflows directed to industrial SMEs being a usually forgotten factor. This paper fills that gap using a balanced panel data of 5722 firms for the period from 2010 to 2017, researching if the presence of foreign capital influences the level and scope of internationalization, and controlling the effects of other variables such as profitability, age, size, indebtedness and sector of activity. The origin of foreign capital is also considered, being researched if issues of institutional or development differences exert any influence over firms’ internationalization. The results evidence that the presence of foreign shareholders in SMEs positively influences internationalization and that the distance variable positively correlates with the internationalization measures. Moreover, there seems to exist a non-linear relationship between the development level of the country of origin of the share capital and internationalization, with the results indicating that firms with share capital originating from more advanced countries attain a higher degree of internationalization. As SMEs in Portugal face increasing competition, joining hands with resource-rich investors such as foreign corporations and institutional investors would be a fruitful strategy to enhance the international competitiveness of Portuguese firms.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    The impact of gender on financial performance: Evidence from a sample of Portuguese SMEs
    2020-12 - Maldonado, Isabel; Pacheco, Luís Miguel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    The objective of the present paper is to study the effects of gender on financial performance and examine the variables that may influence the presence of women leading the firm or being its main shareholder. The relation between gender and profitability in the context of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is a less studied topic in the broader context of performance determinants. Contributing to fill this research gap, it is used an unbalanced panel data of 141 Portuguese firms for the period from 2010 to 2018, obtained with primary and secondary data sources. The relation between gender and financial performance is addressed with two methodologies, a Tobit regression and a Random Effects Model. Our results evidence fewer possibilities for women to be firm leaders in larger and older organizational structures, which do not seem pressured towards equality. Additionally, firm age moderates the positive relation between female leadership and profitability. Given the SMEs importance in the majority of countries, the results and implications of this paper can be generalized to other economies.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Restrito
    Commercial Diplomacy and Export Performance: The Role of Portuguese Embassies and Consulates
    2020-04 - Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Pacheco, Luís Miguel
    Why do countries spend so many resources on embassies and consulates? Export promotion is one answer increasingly given, due to their key role in developing and maintaining export markets. The objective of this paper is to study the relevance of this link. Do export supporting activities developed by Portuguese embassies and consulates around the world in the last decade had any impact on Portugal’s international trade, by helping firms as a whole to add new destination countries or new export products?. Using data for 187 destination countries, for the period 2008-2017, and controlling for other determinants of trade through a standard gravity model, we find that commercial diplomacy efforts seem to only matter for export promotion in low or medium income countries. Complementing the econometric analysis of the macro data set we applied a survey to 238 Portuguese exporting firms. The survey’s resultsevidence that export firms do not attribute great relevance to embassies and consulates in terms of promoting and facilitating their export activities. These results have important implications for the future definition of export promotion initiatives involving foreign representations.