Lobo, Carla Azevedo

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Carla Azevedo


Carla Azevedo Lobo


Carla Azevedo Lobo é doutorada em Gestão pela Universidade Portucalense. É Professora Auxiliar da Universidade Portucalense e leciona em cursos de Licenciatura, Mestrado e Doutoramento, na área das Ciências Empresariais. É também Coordenadora do Curso de Licenciatura em Gestão, desde 2010. É investigadora do REMIT (Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies). Foi a Investigadora Responsável do Projeto de Investigação ("IEcPBI”) na área dos Negócios Internacionais, financiado pelo COMPETE 2020, FEDER e FCT, entre 2018 - 2022. Afiliação: Investigadora do REMIT - Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies (departamento: DEG)

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REMIT – Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies
Centro de investigação que que tem como objetivo principal produzir e disseminar conhecimento teórico e aplicado que possibilite uma maior compreensão das dinâmicas e tendências económicas, empresariais, territoriais e tecnológicas do mundo contemporâneo e dos seus efeitos socioeconómicos. O REMIT adota uma perspetiva multidisciplinar que integra vários domínios científicos: Economia e Gestão; Ciências e Tecnologia; Turismo, Património e Cultura. Founded in 2017, REMIT – Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies is a research unit of Portucalense University. Based on a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective it aims at responding to social challenges through a holistic approach involving a wide range of scientific fields such as Economics, Management, Science, Technology, Tourism, Heritage and Culture. Grounded on the production of advanced scientific knowledge, REMIT has a special focus on its application to the resolution of real issues and challenges, having as strategic orientations: - the understanding of local, national and international environment; - the development of activities oriented to professional practice, namely in the business world.

Resultados da pesquisa

A mostrar 1 - 10 de 13
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Special Issue Information
    2023-01 - Fernandes, Cristina; Durão, Natércia; Moreira, Fernando; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla
    Dear Colleagues, Sustainability generally addresses three fundamental pillars: environmental and ecological, economic, and social. It is a concept related to the conservation or maintenance of a scenario in the long term to deal well with possible threats. The notion of sustainability emerged supported by the clear understanding that natural resources are limited and finite. In this understanding, sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. [...]
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    International business performance and the enhancers of the internationalization strategy in Portuguese firms
    2019 - Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Durão, Natércia; Santos-Pereira, Carla
    As business has become increasingly global, firms have been defied to develop a distinct approach in terms of business resources, skills and capabilities. The way in which these factors are organized and directed depend upon the role played by the entrepreneur within the company. In other words, the entrepreneur's role can define the company's ability to acquire and operationalize its resources, thus being able to influence business performance, especially of international businesses. Research on factors affecting internationalization is attracting growing interest, but few empirical works focus on the perspective of the entrepreneur. Aiming to analyze the existence of an association between international business performance and the factors that act, on the entrepreneur perspective, as enhancers of the internationalization strategy, an online questionnaire survey was conducted with several variables, based on the literature review. Data collected from the 311 valid responses (Portuguese international firms) were treated by IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 software. The statistical analyses used were Descriptive Analysis (frequency analysis, descriptive statistics and graphical representations), Inferential Analysis (Spearman´s ordinal correlation, Kruskall-Wallis Test and Chi-Square Test), Reliability Analysis (Cronbach´s alpha) and Categorical Principal Components Analysis (CATPCA). In accordance with International New Ventures Theory, the Strategic Choice view and Network theory, we found evidence of the positive correlation between international experience of the employees and the percentage of business that resulted from internationalization. We also concluded that there is evidence of the importance of specific skills of the employees, of propensity to take risks and the importance of Networks, in international business performance.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Restrito
    Exploring the relationship between innovation, entry modes and destination countries
    2024-01-03 - Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla; Durão, Natércia; Azevedo, Mónica
    In a world characterized by globalization, where the internationalization of businesses is pivotal for their prosperity, innovation is emerging as a pivotal strategic choice influencing their growth and competitive edge. Despite the broad consensus on the growing importance of internationalization and innovation, some questions arise about the relationship of innovation with entry modes with less commitment to the market and with destination markets with less risks. In order to determine whether there is a pattern of relationship between internationalization modes, destination markets, and innovation for Portuguese firms, the objective is to study this possibility. To achieve this goal, we carried out an online questionnaire survey to collect data. The questionnaire was carefully designed based on a literature review and included various variables related to the internationalization of firms. It was sent to all 8183 firms listed in the AICEP database of Portuguese internationalized firms through Google Forms tool. The data was collected over an 8-month period, starting in May 2019. To analyze the data, we used IBM SPSS Statistics 27.0 software, applying a quantitative approach. We employed Quantitative Analysis Methodologies: Univariate and Multivariate Exploratory Factorial Analysis (EFA), Correlation analysis and the nonparametric tests Chi-square and Mann-Whitney. Based on the findings, the empirical evidence clearly demonstrates that firms employing internationalization modes demanding higher commitment, along with those targeting geographically and psychologically distant markets, place significantly greater emphasis on innovation as a pivotal factor driving their international expansion.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Innovation and internationalisation: Is there a connection with entry modes and destination countries? [abstract]
    2022-07 - Azevedo, Mónica; Durão, Natércia; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla
    In a globalized world where internationalisation plays a crucial role for the success of companies, innovation is also proving to be a key strategic decision for their development and competitiveness. Despite the broad consensus on the growing importance of internationalization and innovation for companies, some questions arise: Is there a link between innovation and internationalization? Does the relationship between internationalisation and innovation differ according to entry modes? Does the importance of innovation differ between destination markets? Taking into account a sample of Portuguese companies, this study seeks to answer mainly the last two questions. Thus, the goal is to explore whether it is possible to establish a pattern of relationship between internationalisation modes, destination markets and innovation for Portuguese firms. To achieve the objectives, we set out to accomplish in this work, we used data gathered through an online questionnaire survey. A questionnaire was designed and sent by email to 8183 companies from the AICEP database. From the data collected we gathered 310 valid responses, which were then processed by IBM SPSS Statistics 27.0 software. Quantitative Analysis were used and given the nature of the data (categorical variables measured on a nominal or ordinal scale), the statistical methods used were Exploratory Analysis (Univariate and Multivariate Exploratory Factorial Analysis- EFA) and Inferential Analysis (Correlation analysis: Spearman´s correlation and Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney nonparametric test). According to the results, we can find empirical evidence that are indeed the companies with internationalisation modes that require greater commitment, as well as with geographically and psychologically more distant destination markets, the ones that attach greater importance to innovation as a determinant of internationalisation.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    The importance of the skills in business digitalization for the internationalization strategy: Evidence for Portuguese firms
    2020 - Santos-Pereira, Carla; Durão, Natércia; Moreira, Fernando; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    To meet the requirements of both national and international competition firms need to engage in a continuous innovation process and constantly restructure their operations. Firms must find new ways to develop a competitive advantage, which entails searching for and acquiring new skills, resources and competences. Traditional theories of internationalization focused mainly on multinational firms, giving less importance to entrepreneurs with their small businesses. However, the development of the business world has been breaking all boundaries with the increasing internationalization of firms, not dependent on their size, activity sector or geographical area of origin. It is also widely acknowledged that organizations have suffered a large evolution at the technological level where the traditional barriers of information and knowledge transferring have been progressively eliminated. Digital transformation (DT), in business practice can enable significant competitive advantage. DT can also be seen as a deep and accelerating transformation with regard to processes, activities, competences and models, in order to take advantage of the changes and opportunities offered by the inclusion of digital technologies into an organization. In the literature of business internationalization, a large number of scientific studies focus on the determinants of internationalization and more specifically, on their relationship with the success / failure of internationalization. However, few of them analyze the entrepreneur’s perspective. Therefore, this work aims to present a study focused on the entrepreneur’s perception about the internationalization process of his company, more specifically, about the factors that enhanced the company entry into foreign markets as well as the constraints found in this process. In this project, through an empirical study from a sample of 195 Portuguese International firms, we intend to confirm if the integration of technological innovations in business practice can enable significant competitive advantage including in business internationalization.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    A Possible Relationship Between Internationalization and Innovation Strategies: An Analysis of Portuguese SMEs
    2021-06-30 - Azevedo, Mónica; Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla; Durão, Natércia
    The importance of internationalization for firm’s survival and growth seems to be consensual among the researchers on this topic. Innovation is also considered a key factor for firm’s development and competitiveness. Moreover, the relationship between innovation and internationalization has become a matter of increasingly interest in the literature and can be analysed according to two streams: innovation as cause or consequence of companies’ internationalization. Additionally, given the great importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for the growth of economies, part of literature has paid special attention to this kind of enterprises. The purpose of this work is to verify the existence of a possible relationship between internationalization and innovation strategies among Portuguese firms by exploring whether Portuguese entrepreneurs consider innovation as an important factor or a motivation in the internationalization process. To achieve this goals, and based on data obtained from an online questionnaire survey, descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques are used. In particular, graphical representations, descriptive measures and also, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis (with multiple comparisons) non-parametric tests.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    The importance of internationalization strategy for innovation in Portuguese firms
    2020-08 - Durão, Natércia; Santos-Pereira, Carla; Azevedo, Mónica; Maldonado, Isabel; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    Innovation and internationalization seem to be vital strategies for the survival and growth of companies facing an increasingly competitive global environment. The twoway link between these two factors has become a topic of interest among researchers. Although innovation and internationalization are highly related activities, the role played by innovation in the internationalization process of firms has been analysed by internationalization, others consider that innovation can be a consequence of internationalization process. Given the great importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for the growth of economies, part of literature has paid special attention to this kind of enterprises. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between innovation and internationalization within Portuguese firms, in particular to analyse whether Portuguese entrepreneurs consider innovation as an important factor in the process of internationalisation. To achieve this goals, we will use descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Restrito
    Internationalize? Why? - Motivations of Portuguese firms
    2020-04 - Durão, Natércia; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla; Maldonado, Isabel; Pacheco, Luís Miguel
    Business internationalization has become in recent decades, more than a requirement, a strategy of many firms, regardless their size or age. Besides trying to reach new markets and new clients, internationalization has turned into a strategy of the organization itself, far beyond its need to survive. Several authors highlight the company's growth strategies, in which facing the difficulty of growing in the national market given the increased competition, the public policies restricting business expansion, among others, the company chooses to go international and take advantage of the opportunities created in a new market. The Dunning model (1992) was based on four motivational factors: resource-seeking, market-seeking, efficiency-seeking and strategic asset-seeking. Although this typology was an important reference to explain the motivations for international expansion of multinationals from developed countries, empirical evidence has shown that the motivations of smaller companies can be quite different. Accordingly, some studies make a more extensive and complementary proposal. They suggest that there are two types of factors: the reactive and the mixed factos, that can influence the strategic management of internationalization. Reactive motivations include internationalization by drag and the imperatives of the business itself. At mixed motivations, authors consider, for example, geographical proximity and cultural affinities, the advantage of economies of scale, the use of the country's image and also government support. The reasons underlying the decision of firms' internationalization may therefore have different segmentations, and may well differ when it comes to SMEs or large firms. This work aims to identify the determinants that motivated the internationalization decision of portuguese firms, namely to understand whether they adopt a reactive or more proactive approach, that we can naturally associate with a strategy of reaction to, for instance, the retraction of internal demand, or a more active strategy that is part of the new mission or vision of the company. It will also be tried to ascertain whether there are any diferences in the most frequent motivations between the smallest and the largest companies. To achieve this goal we will use Quantitative Analysis Methodologies, through Descriptive and Inferential Analysis. Data were collected from 238 valid responses questionnaire and were treated by IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 software. Our preliminar results show that the most important determinants for internationalization are in line with those defined by the Dunning model, despite the size or age of the firm.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Os fatores potenciadores da estratégia de internacionalização e o desempenho internacional das empresas portuguesas
    2019-11 - Durão, Natércia; Lobo, Carla Azevedo; Santos-Pereira, Carla
    A remoção progressiva das barreiras ao comércio internacional abriu portas e criou oportunidades tanto para as grandes como para as pequenas empresas, não se restringindo apenas às empresas mais ousadas ou às especialmente vocacionadas para atividades externas. As modalidades de internacionalização também deixaram de ser apenas a tradicional exportação para um cliente distante ou a abertura de uma filial no exterior, para passarem a incorporar as mais variadas formas de internacionalização, desde o comércio intraempresa, investimentos cruzados entre empresas de diversos países e sobretudo variados tipos de acordos de cooperação em que participam empresas de diversas dimensões, empresas financeiras, governos, instituições supranacionais, entre outras. Pode acontecer, inclusive, que a internacionalização por parte de certa empresa se inicie não pela exportação de bens ou serviços, mas logo pela criação de uma unidade produtiva no exterior ou que simplesmente nasça já global, as chamadas born globals. A justificar algumas destas mudanças ocorridas nas últimas décadas estiveram algumas alterações que têm repercussões nas estratégias de internacionalização das empresas: o protagonismo adquirido pelas empresas de pequena e média dimensão que, através de métodos muito diversos, estendem a sua atividade além-fronteiras, mostrando que a atividade externa não é um exclusivo das grandes multinacionais; toda a evolução das tecnologias de informação e comunicação exerceu também um efeito muito positivo nesta nova era da internacionalização.
  • PublicaçãoAcesso Aberto
    Driving forces of internationalization: differences between sectors
    2021-07-07 - Santos-Pereira, Carla; Durão, Natércia; Lobo, Carla Azevedo
    Globalization and the progress in information and communication technologies, as well as international services trade agreements, have improved the position of service industries in the world economy. Therefore, an increasing number of service firms are engaging in foreign markets. The literature on internationalization, however, does not pay much attention to this sector, tending to focus more on the manufacturing sector and multinational enterprises (MNEs). Regarding this subject, scholars highlight four features that distinguish services from manufactured goods: intangibility, inseparability, perishability and heterogeneity. Researchers argue that these characteristics influences the motivations of particular service industries to engage in foreign market operations and this also inevitably makes their internationalization motivations and determinants different from that of the manufacturing sector. Bearing in mind this gap in the literature, the main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the driving forces behind internationalization of Portuguese firms, focusing on differences between sectors. Specifically, to examine the factors that determine firm internationalization strategy and the differences between service and manufacturing firms. To achieve this goal, we used Quantitative Analysis Methodologies. Data collected from 199 valid responses were treated using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0 software. Given the nature of the data (categorical variables measured on an ordinal scale), the statistical methods used for the data analysis were Descriptive Analysis (frequency analysis and graphical representations) and Inferential Analysis (Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric test with multiple comparisons).