CIAUD-UPT - Capítulos de Livros / Book Chapters

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    Urban Policies in Portugal
    (Springer, 2019-11-01) Cavaco, Cristina; Florentino, Rui; Pagliuso, Ana
    This chapter claims that a Portuguese national urban agenda has been further consolidated and improved since the 1990s, having the European Union as one of its major engine and drivers. After a first overview of the background on urban policies in Portugal, a number of policy programs were studied (Polis, Polis XXI and Portugal 2020, among others), focusing on cities and sustainable urban development during the last three European Union policy programming cycles. The analysis focuses, mainly, on the typology of interventions, including target areas and actors involved, their management, governance models and implementation tools, in order to discuss major tendencies and alignments with international urban agendas. Concepts such as sustainable development, place-based policy or integrated territorial development are at the core of the debate, along with the rhetorical mainstream developed at a European and international level. The chapter settles that, in the studied period, urban policies in Portugal were progressively released from pure physical actions to adopt a rather strategic, integral, governance-based approach, encompassing community programs. The scaling up of the Portuguese national urban policy (NUP) happened at several levels, and now Portugal is considered as an explicit NUP holder, despite no consensus existing on the matter.
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    La contemporaneidad audiovisual: Una aproximación a la experimentación y a la transgresión
    (CIC - Grupo de Pesquisa “Comunicação, Imagem e Contemporaneidade” da UTP; Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná; CIAC - Centro de Investigação em Artes e Comunicação da Universidade do Algarve; Grupo de Pesquisa “Comunicação, Memória e Cultura Popular", Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 2022-12) Urrutia, Hernando
    Este artículo expone la experimentación y la transgresión en la contemporaneidad audiovisual como medio no solo técnico en la evolución de las narrativas desde las nuevas tecnologías de la producción audiovisual contemporánea del video digital, como de las complejidades conceptuales de transformación y modificación de las narrativas, que fortalece la experimentación del video arte en las expresiones artísticas actuales, manifestando allanar caminos de vanguardia. Las transgresiones de los límites del ser humano en las percepciones post-humanas con el desarrollo tecnológico y la cibercultura, presentes en la evolución de la expresión estética que establecen nuevos lenguajes y paradigmas de conocimiento en la globalización cultural contemporánea.
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    Socio-economic sustainability in Vernacular Architecture
    (Firenze University Press, 2014) Correia, Mariana; Juvanec, Borut; Mileto, Camila; Vegas, Fernando; Gomes, Filipa; Alcindor, Mónica; Lima, Ana Isabel
    Vernacular architecture represents a great resource that has considerable potential to define principles for sustainable design and contemporary architecture. This publication is the result of an overall aim to produce a valuable tool for analysis regarding vernacular heritage through different assessments, in order to define principles to consider for sustainable development. [...]
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    Vernacular architecture in Chazhashi settlement, Upper Svaneti, Georgia
    (Firenze University Press, 2021) Carlos, Gilberto Duarte; Correia, Mariana; Sousa, Goreti; Alcindor, Mónica; Bermudez, Teresa
    The Ushguli territory is located in the Upper Svaneti region, in Georgia. Its occupation is particularly influenced by the Enguri River course. The river Enguri is born in the Caucasian mountain chain, formed by the glaciers of the Shkhara peak, the Georgian highest point (5068m). From a geographical perspective, the high valley conformed by the Engury stream constitutes the fundamental axis for the implantation of the four historical settlements that are part of Usghuli area, listed as World Heritage, since 1996 (UNESCO-WHC, 1996). [...]
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    Thinking art in the technological world: an approach to digital media art creation
    (IGI Global, 2018-07) Silva, Henrique; Simão, Emília
    In this chapter, the authors discuss the use of digital media in the creation of digital art, questioning the evolution of the relationship between technology and concept in communication through art. The intersection of new media and digital art have been opening interesting and seductive new horizons and in parallel, the concept, the understanding, the legitimacy of artistic creation, the role of the artist and the role of the spectator are also redefined. Based on two experimental works of the artist Henrique Silva, the authors analyze and reflect on the relationship of technology, art and virtuality, focusing on concepts like experience, sensory, immersion, communication and interaction in artworks created through digital media.
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    Software-based media art: from the artistic exhibition to the conservation models
    (IGI Global, 2020-06) Soares, Celia; Simão, Emília
    This chapter illustrates the reaction to the preservation and conservation of software-based media art and summarizes the crucial ideas and questions that involve this emergent area of conservation. The chapter analyzes the role in which conservators explore the impact of the method, attitudes to change, technology obsolescence, and the influence of the how the artist imagines and understands their practice on the conservation of these works as they enter the exhibition space. In addressing the conservation of software-based media art, this chapter highlights the variety of knowledge and expertise required: expertise that is personified in the teamwork of those who support these functions. The author completes the chapter by recommending that developing and maintaining these efforts has become a crucial part of the software-based media conservator's role.
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    Psychedelic trance on the web: exploring digital parties at second life
    (IGI Global, 2015) Simão, Emília; Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro de; Silva, Armando Malheiro da
    This chapter proposes an approach about Psychedelic Trance tribe behaviours and manifestations in digital environments, and cyber ritual dynamics beyond the virtual parties in Second Life. Many spatial communities are simultaneously digital communities, and both became complements and extensions of one another. Psychedelic Trance movements and manifestations have been happening through all kinds of physical spaces, now also extended to digital spaces. Psytrance neonomads are now techno-nomads, moving to, from, and through the web, redefining themselves, their practices and their gatherings. In this scenario, Psychedelic Trance branches emerges everywhere, especially in social networks and three-dimensional immersive environments like Second Life. This digital migration is not only making the tribe growing, is also enhancing boundaries and increasing the individual and collective consciousness of its members. Nevertheless, even if the Trancers became simultaneously physical and virtual natives, the digital parties do not seems to replace their outside experiences.
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    Common damages and recommendations for the seismic retrofitting of vernacular dwellings
    (CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015) Correia, Mariana; Varum, Humberto; Lourenço, Paulo B.
    This closure chapter acknowledges the most common retrofitting elements and measures identified in vernacular architecture. It enhances common systematic structural damage and failure mechanisms during earthquakes, relating them with probable causes, and establishing general recommendations to consider in preventive and reactive actions. Also, recommendations for the design and detailing of new construction in prone earthquake areas are advanced.
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    Case study: Seismic resistant constructive systems in El Salvador
    (CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015) Gomes, Filipa; Correia, Mariana; Nuñez, Rosa Delmy
    This case study addresses the seismic-resistant constructive systems, applied in housing construction in El Salvador. The traditional construction systems usually used are adobe, bahareque, and reinforced brick masonry (mixto). The improved bahareque system is based on the ancient technique known locally as Joya de Ceren bahareque, a technique used in the past, on the world heritage site of Joya de Cerén.
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    A brief paleoseismology literature review: Contribution for the local seismic culture study in Portugal
    (CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015) Correia, Mariana; Worth, M.; Vilanova, S.
    On the framework of the FCT research project ‘SEISMIC-V: Vernacular Seismic Culture in Portugal’, the team was recommended, by the Evaluation Panel, to perform a review on the field of Paleoseismology and its application to the Portuguese territory. This paper intends to fulfil this request, by presenting an introduction to the history of Paleoseismology, its application and main techniques. The paper also includes a literature review regarding Portuguese geology, and a brief summary on the paleoseismic studies in Portugal, focusing on the following regions: the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Lower Tagus Valley. Finally, it presents an overview with general conclusions.
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    When graffiti is not art: the damage of alkyd sprays on calcareous stones employed in cultural heritage
    (Nova Science Publishers, 2013-01) Dionísio, Amélia; Ribeiro, Telma
    In order to evaluate the damage of alkyd sprays on calcareous monument stones, limestone and marble samples of renowned building materials and ornamental stones in the Portuguese architecture, Lioz and Branco, were submitted to artificial graffiti. The harmfulness was assessed in relation to the variation of water vapour permeability, static contact angle, water microdrop absorption, chromatic changes and surface contact roughness. For evaluation of the degree of the aerosol’s penetration into the stone and the morphological surface changes, Scanning Electron Microscopy was used. Apart from the aesthetics aspects, which threaten the historical significance of the monument, the current research has shown that alkyd sprays used in graffiti interact with the stone substrate by reducing the water vapour permeability of the studied stones and thus leading to water condensation just underneath the paint. Moreover a significant reduction of the roughness of the stone surfaces is generated by the application of these paintings, creating a smooth and uniform overcoat that modifies surface texture and the details intentionally left in the original work of art. The water repellency of the stone surfaces is also significant incremented. An increase knowledge of the interaction of alkyd sprays with stone materials provides valuable insight and greater understanding of the vulnerability of stone to graffiti vandalism, namely to some Portuguese monument stones.
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    Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture: Contributions for sustainable development
    (CRC Press, 2014) Correia, Mariana; Carlos, Gilberto Duarte; Rocha, Sandra
    In a continuously changing world, there has been a growing interest in the protection of vernacular heritage and earthen architecture. The need to protect and enhance this fragile heritage via intelligent responses to threats from nature and the environment has become evident. Historically, vernacular heritage research focussed on philosophical aspects and surveys, while earthen architecture studies emphasized earthen material and construction techniques. However, for these particular forms of heritage to survive, academic research had to shift its focus, so as to respond to new challenges. Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture gathers contributions of key international researchers from 50 countries, and covers a wide variety of topics: • Cultural heritage and building cultures • Materials and construction techniques • Territory and environmental adaptation • Energy effi ciency and sustainable design • Natural hazards and risk mitigation • Education and research focus Vernacular Heritage & Earthen Architecture: Contributions for Sustainable Development discusses the threats that vernacular and earthen heritage are facing, and reflects on their important contribution to sustainable development. The book will prove to be a valuable source of information for academics, researchers and professionals in the fields of vernacular heritage, conservation, architecture, civil engineering and construction, and can be used as a reference text for undergraduate and post-graduate courses in vernacular heritage and earthen architecture.
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    Experiences from the past for today’s challenges
    (Acciona, 2018) Correia, Mariana
    During the twentieth century, technological development and the increase of mass production led to a progressive abandonment of traditional building techniques and ways of life, especially in urbanized regions pressured by rapid and unrestrained growth. From the seven billion people that today inhabit the planet, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme estimates that four billion live in informal houses, from which one billion of urban poor live in slums (UN-Habitat 2006). According to UN-Habitat, a slum is an urban area with a lack of basic services (sanitation, potable water, and electricity), substandard housing, overcrowding, unhealthy and hazardous locations, insecure tenure and social exclusion (UNHabitat 2003). In a short time period, several communities around the globe felt pressured to move from rural regions to urban areas located in the outskirts of cities. In these urban substandard areas, rapidly growing to become part of megacities, construction is developed using all sorts of materials and building possibilities, following neither standard regulations, nor the building-culture intelligence encompassed in vernacular construction. Meanwhile, the 3.1 billion people that live in rural areas (United Nations 2014), mostly have no access to Internet (ICT 2015), and a great number still lead traditional ways of life, with long-established customs and beliefs that have passed from one generation to another. In these communities, vernacular architecture expresses their adaptation to climatic and landscape contexts, the use of local natural materials, and the embodiment of their empirical knowledge regarding construction know-how (Correia 2009).
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    Avaliação de sítios culturais património mundial
    (Universidade do Porto, Centro de Estudos de Arquitectura e Urbanismo da Faculdade de Arquitectura, 2019) Correia, Mariana
    A falta de conhecimento sobre a Convenção de Património Mundial, sobre as Orientações Técnicas que a regulam, e sobre o processo de avaliação dos sítios classificados, resulta fre- quentemente, em erros de perceção sobre como atuar em Património Mundial. Recorrentemente, a intervenção em sítios culturais classificados é demasiado invasiva, podendo mesmo alterar a autenticidade e integridade do bem, e afetar a conservação do Valor Universal Excecional. Devido não só ao desconhecimento da regulamentação de Património Mundial, à falta ou inadequada atuação e proteção, mas também à ineficaz gestão da propriedade, a deterioração do bem pode agravar-se seriamente, levando a missões reativas e mesmo à classificação do bem na Lista de Património em Perigo. O presente artigo pretende clarificar quem são as entidades que avaliam e decidem sobre Património Mundial; quem são os órgãos técnicos internacionais consultivos; como se desenvolve o processo de classificação de sítios culturais com Valor Universal Excecional; e quais as ameaças e fatores, que afetam de modo recorrente, o Património Mundial.
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    La contribución de la arquitecta Pascuala Campos en la implementación de la perspectiva de género en el contexto Gallego [abstract]
    (Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 2021) Fernández Cruces, Ainoa; Sousa, Goreti; Guerreiro, Paulo; Correia, Mariana
    Pascuala Campos de Michelena fue pionera en varios aspectos de la arquitectura gallega. Ella fue la primera arquitecta reconocida por su trabajo profesional, la primera a la que le asignaron una Cátedra en Arquitectura y Diseño Urbano en una universidad española y también pionera en su labor cívica luchando por los derechos de la mujer. [...]
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    Conservation in Earthen Heritage: Assessment and Significance of Failure, Criteria, Conservation Theory, and Strategies [translate to Persian]
    (Imam Khomeini International University Press, 2021-06) Correia, Mariana
    Worldwide, there is a vast but fragile earthen heritage that is barely surviving due to serious damage of the fabric. It is generally believed that natural agents are the overall cause for the decay of earthen heritage. However, when thoroughly evaluating, it can be observed that conservators’ interventions have a major impact, which leads to question current approaches to conservation and the reasons why intervention mistakes are repeated and why successful conservation results are still scarce. The research methodology of this investigation is based in a case study strategy analysing three World Heritage earthen sites, namely Chan Chan in Peru, Aït Ben Haddou in Morocco and Arg-e Bam in Iran. A combination of sources was also used, following a multi-method approach. This book suggests implementing standards for high-quality intervention through the definition of criteria for decision-making and indicators of quality and best practice, as well as clarification concerning procedures in the methodology of intervention. It also stresses the importance of conservation theory in earthen heritage conservation, combining theory and practice. In addition, the book recommends an overall strategy in the conservation of earthen heritage, with particular emphasis on an approach that integrates education, awareness, research and preventive conservation.
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    Vernacular architecture in Portugal: Regional variations
    (Springer, 2019) Simões, Rui Nogueira; Cabral, Inês; Barros, Fernando Cerqueira; Carlos, Gilberto Duarte; Correia, Mariana; Marques, Bruno; Guedes, Manuel Correia
    This chapter presents the various typologies that can be found in vernacular architecture across Portugal. It will be shown how these variations result from an adaptation to the local contexts, including climatic characteristics. Considerations will also be taken on other aspects of sustainability, including refurbishment, environmental performance, and cultural issues. The chapter consists of the National Survey on Regional Architecture, Regional Variations: Context Considerations, Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Cova da Beira, Estremadura and Ribatejo, Inland Alentejo, Coastal Alentejo, Lower Alentejo and Algarve, Vernacular revival, Conclusions, and References.
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    The traditional cultural landscape of Pico Island and its vernacular architecture, Portugal
    (Firenze University Press, 2021) Carlos, Gilberto Duarte; Correia, Mariana; Sousa, Goreti; Alcindor, Mónica; Florentino, Rui; Bermudez, Teresa; Costa, Manuel P.
    In the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is located the Azores archipelago, composed by nine volcanic islands. Pico island was the seventh to be discovered by Portuguese sailors, during the 15th century. Its name is due to the pyramidal form of its mountain, a geological volcano reaching 2.351 meters, the highest mountain in Portuguese territory (Costa, 1997). Pico island has an amazing vineyard culture, especially in its western coastline. The exceptional landscape character granted to Pico a World Heritage status in 2004.
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    Vernacular and earthen architecture at the core of local knowledge research: a quality partnership with successful outcomes
    (Firenze University Press, 2021) Correia, Mariana; Carlos, Gilberto Duarte; Dipasquale, Letizia; Mecca, Saverio; Mileto, Camilla; Vegas, Fernando
    Since 2006, Escola Superior Gallaecia (Portugal), University of Florence (Italy), and Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain), with partners as CRAterre-ENSAG (France), the University of Cagliari (Italy), and Ecole d’Avignon (France), have been working together, for the enhancement and protection of vernacular heritage and earthen architecture. As key-institutions in the area, they share high standards and common values, in order to address and achieve fundamental research, capacity building, learning experiences, relevant outcomes, contributing for a broader and deeper knowledge on vernacular heritage and earthen architecture
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    Living and virtual visiting European World Heritage: An overview
    (Firenze University Press, 2021) Correia, Mariana
    World Heritage sites have an outstanding significance for humankind. Living and virtual visiting European World Heritage opens the minds of people to discover the 'spirit of place' and the remarkable vernacular heritage still existing in Europe. [...]